Diffusion time equation

This equation is also referred to as the Einstein's approximation equation. The important determinants of diffusion time (t) are the distance of diffusion (x) and the diffusion coefficient (D). Diffusion time increases with the square of diffusion distance. The diffusion coefficient is unique for each solute and must be determined experimentally. It is a function of a number factors including molecular weight of the diffusing species, temperature, and viscosity of the medium in. The accumulated number of molecules adsorbed on the surface is expressed by the Langmuir-Schaefer equation at the short-time limit by integrating the diffusion equation over time: Γ = 2 A C D t π {\displaystyle \Gamma =2AC{\sqrt {\frac {Dt}{\pi }}}

Diffusion in finite geometries Time-dependent diffusion in finite bodies can soften be solved using the separation of variables technique, which in cartesian coordinates leads to trigonometric-series solutions. A solution of the form ! cx,y,z,t ( ) =Xx Yy Zz Tt is sought. 3.205 L3 11/2/06 1 In effect, we are equating the turbulent diffusion time scale δ/ u to the convective time scale L/U. We can rewrite the relation as δ/L ∼ u/U or δ/u ∼ L/U. The above analysis implies that with an imposed external flow the turbulence must have a time scale commensurate with the time scale of the flow. In other words, the flow turbulence is a function of the mean flow, entailing that turbulence is part of the flow and not part of the fluid as molecular diffusivity and viscosity are. Not. The time for diffusion is linear in y/x for 3 dimensions; proportional to log (y/x) for 2 dimensions; and independent of y/x for 1 dimension. For example, when y/x = 0.1 (e.g., target diameter 1 nm, diffusion distance 10 nm), q 3 = 0.35 and q 2 = 1.22 One of the key results that emerges from the mathematical analysis of diffusion problems is that the time scale τ for a particle to travel a distance x is given on the average by τ ≈ x 2 /D, indicating that the dimensions of the diffusion constant are length 2 /time. This rule of thumb shows that the diffusion time increases quadratically with the distance, with major implications for processes in cell biology as we now discuss

The diffusion equation is a parabolic partial differential equation. In physics, it describes the macroscopic behavior of many micro-particles in Brownian motion, resulting from the random movements and collisions of the particles. In mathematics, it is related to Markov processes, such as random walks, and applied in many other fields, such as materials science, information theory, and biophysics. The diffusion equation is a special case of convection-diffusion equation, when. Time discretization step t =0.05 Amount of time steps T =100 Diffusion coefficient D =1 Initial distribution is: a) A stationary front: u(x,0)= (u−, for x ≤0, u+, for x >0. b) A stationary pulse: u(x,0)= u−, for x ∈[−L,−L/4], u+, for x ∈(−L/4,L/4), u−, for x ∈[L/4,L] The basic diffusion process of impurity atoms is similar to that of charge carriers. Let F be the flux of dopant atoms traversing through a unit area in a unit time, and x C F D w w (Equation 8.1) where D is the diffusion coefficient, C is the dopant concentration, and x is the distance in one dimension. The equation imparts that the main driving force o

Diffusion Time Calculator - PhysiologyWe

  1. Diffusion equation. The principle statement of the heat equation is that in the presence of different temperatures, heat flows occur, which finally lead to a temperature equalization. The analogous situation is also found with concentration differences in substances. Due to such concentration differences, mass flows occur, which lead to an equalization of the concentrations. It is therefore not surprising that diffusion processes are also described with formally the same equation
  2. Hydrodynamic interaction neglected. The diffusion equation for the distribution function is (in the absence of hydrodynamic interaction) (83) in which λ = ζ L2 /12 kT is the time constant for the solution, and ∂/∂ u is a gradient operator in the θ, ϕ space describing the orientation of the molecule
  3. Fick's second law of diffusion, equations (4) and (5), for calculating the diffusion coefficient, which was assumed to be independent of concentration: (7) 2 2 x C D t C ∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂. (8) This time lag method is still the most common method for estimating the gas diffusion coefficient. Permeation Models and Methods of Calculation.
  4. Time-scale of Diffusion. Another way of building your intuition for diffusion is to solve the simplified diffusion equation for \(\Delta t\): \[\Delta t\simeq\frac{\Delta z^2}{\kappa} \nonumber\] We can use this time-scale to consider the question How long does it take for heat magma intrusion to affect the surrounding rock 100 m away
  5. The relation to the diffusion equation is given. The asymptotic behaviors of the Mittag-Leffler function, the hypergeometric function 1F1, and the exponential functions are compared numerically. The Grünwald-Letnikov scheme is used to derive the approximate difference schemes of the Caputo time-fractional operator and the Feller-Riesz space-fractional operator. The explicit difference.
  6. Diffusion: MicroscopicTheory—13 so,it is convenienttogeneralizetheone-dimensionalran domwalk andsuppose that aparticle steps to the right with aprobabilitypandto theleft withaprobabilityq. Sincetheprobabilityofsteppingonewayortheotheris 1, q= 1 -p. The probability that such a particle steps exactly k times to the right in n trials is given by th

Diffusion • This jiggling about by lots of molecules leads to diffusion • Individual molecules follow a random walk, due to collisions with surrounding molecules • Diffusion = many random walks by many molecules - Substance goes from region of high concentration to region of lower concentratio advance only half a time step. • Compute fluxes at this points tn+1/2 • Now advance to step tn+1 by using points at tn and tn+1/2 • Intermediate Results at tn+1/2 not needed anymore. • Scheme is second order in space and time The Diffusion Equation (1855) Continuity n x t j x t ( , ) div ( , ) t r rr =− ∂ ∂ + linear response => the diffusion equation the Green's function solution n x t P x t( , ) ( , ) r r Essentially an equation for the pdf: → (1914,1915,1918) n x t f x t ( , ) ( , ) r rr +μ (r r f x t n x t ( , ) ( , )) r −∇μ j x t K n x t ( , ) grad ( , ) rr r = According to the definition of the mobility $\mu$ there will be a drift velocity given by \begin{equation} \label{Eq:I:43:32} v_{\text{drift}} = \mu F. \end{equation} By our usual arguments, the drift current (the net number of molecules which pass a unit of area in a unit of time) will be \begin{equation} \label{Eq:I:43:33} J_{\text{drift}} = n_av_{\text{drift}}, \end{equation} or \begin.

Equations; Interactive Graphs; References; Diffusion Length. Overview. Diffusion length is the average length a carrier moves between generation and recombination. Semiconductor materials that are heavily doped have greater recombination rates and consequently, have shorter diffusion lengths. Higher diffusion lengths are indicative of materials with longer lifetimes and are, therefore, an. 1 Analytical solution of the diffusion equation for constant diffusivity The partial diffusion differential equation for the uniaxial case is z C D C t C ( ) (1.1) Here C is the water concentration, t the time, z the depth coordinate, and D the diffusivity that may depend on the water concentration. For water vapour as the environment, the surface condition i

Fick's laws of diffusion - Wikipedi

  1. The time fractional diffusion equation is obtained from the standarddiffusion equation by replacing the first-order time derivative with afractional derivative of order β ∋ (0, 1). From a physicalview-point this generalized diffusion equation is obtained from afractional Fick law which describes transport processes with longmemory. The fundamental solution for the Cauchy problem is.
  2. In this paper, a computational approach is suggested to obtain unknown space-time-dependent source term of the fractional diffusion equations. We assign a time-dependent source term and a linear space with the zero components which represent a series of boundary functions. In linear space, an energy border functional equation is obtained. After that, some numerical examples are provided to.
  3. In this paper, we study the asymptotic estimate of solution for a mixed-order time-fractional diffusion equation in a bounded domain subject to the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. Firstly, the unique existence and regularity estimates of solution to the initial-boundary value problem are considered. Then combined with some important properties, including a maximum principle for a.

Diffusion Time - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

The time fractional diffusion equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions in an n-dimensional whole-space and half-space is considered. Its solution has been obtained in terms of Green functions by Schneider and Wyss. For the problem in whole-space, an explicit representation of the Green functions can also be obtained. However, an explicit representation of the Green functions. φ(r, t) = density/concentration as a function of position (r) and time (t) D(φ, r) = diffusion coefficient as a function of density/concentration and position = divergence of vector field when in dot product, gradient of function (d/dx, d/dy, d/dz) when used as function operator. History 1822 : Fourier proposes heat eqution 1827 : Brownian motion discovered 1855 : Fick uses heat equation to.

Diffusion - useful equation

Indeed, if we replace the smooth weight function μ(α) in by an impulse function μ(α) = δ(α − α 0) for known α 0 ∈ (0, 1), we can immediately deduce the so-called time-fractional diffusion equation Stochastic equations for Markov chains Diffusion limits?? Uniqueness question Compatibility for multiple time-changes First Prev Next Go To Go Back Full Screen Close Quit 2 Weak and strong solutions for simple stochastic equa-tions Given measurable : S 1 S 2!R and a S 2-valued random variable Y, consider the equation ( X;Y) = 0: (1) In many (most?) contexts, it is natural to specify the.

» What are the time scales for diffusion in cells

The protein diffusion constant used to estimate time scales within cells takes into account an order of magnitude reduction in the diffusion constant in the cell relative to its value in water. The factor of 6 in the denominator of the equation for τ applies to diffusion in three dimensions. In the two- or one-dimensional cases, it should be replaced with 4 or 2, respectively. The mammalian. We can also solve our C-N discretized diffusion equation with multigrid Time-discretized PDE is: This is an elliptic Helmholtz equation: - with. PHY 688: Numerical Methods for (Astro)Physics MG Solution Recall for multigrid we need a smoothing operation and a method to compute the residual. Smoothing: - Only slightly more complicated than the Poisson problem - Still use Gauss-Seidel. The diffusion equation is. I am using the Laplace transform method, which I have applied successfully to solve similar diffusion problems. Briefly, when applying the Laplace transform and solving the subsidiary equation with the stated boundary conditions, I arrive at the solution: Where q^2 = p/D and p is the transform variable

Therefore, the diffusion coefficient becomes a tensor and the equation for diffusion is altered to relate the mass flux of one chemical species to the concentration gradients of all chemical species present. The necessary equations are formulated as the Maxwell-Stefan description of diffusion; they are often applied to describe gas mixtures, such as syngas in a reactor or the mix of oxygen. The diffusion flux (J) measures the amount of substance that flows through a unit area during a unit time interval, measured in g/m 2. The diffusion coefficient (D), measured in area per unit time m 2 /s.It is proportional to the squared velocity of the diffusing particles, which depends on the temperature, viscosity of the fluid, and the size of the particles The basic diffusion process of impurity atoms is similar to that of charge carriers. Let F be the flux of dopant atoms traversing through a unit area in a unit time, and x C F D w w (Equation 8.1) where D is the diffusion coefficient, C is the dopant concentration, and x is the distance in one dimension. The equation imparts that the main. (see Lecture 3), which has an SI unit of m²/s (length²/time). Apparently, D is a proportionality constant between the diffusion flux and the gradient in the concentration of the diffusing species, and D is dependent on both temperature and pressure. Diffusion coefficient, also called . Diffusivity, is an important parameter indicative of the diffusion mobility. Diffusion coefficient is not.

Fractional Diffusion Equations • Following scaling arguments one can postulate equations which are of non-integer order in time or in space, e.g. ( , ) ( , ) 2 2 P x t x P x t K t∂ ∂ = α α or ( , ) ( , ) 2 2 1 1 P x t t x P x t K ∂ ∂ = − − α α Such equations allow for : • easier introduction of external forces. As time increases, the extent of homogenization by diffusion also increases, and the length scale over which chemical homogeneity persists within a phase gradually extends to macroscopic distances. In the silicon process technology, depending on the complexity of the model, dopant redistribution does not only include dopant atoms itself, but also point defects

Diffusion equation - Wikipedi

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Derivation of heat equation (diffusion equation) - tec-scienc

Clearly, the needed diffusion time for mixing between fluid layers is lessened as the diffusion length is shorter. This is why the static mixers, like the one above, are effective at mixing. They increase the surface area of contact between fluid layers with different concentrations of the solute and decrease the length scale of separation between these layers. Although convection may allow. Apply the Fourier Transform to the diffusion equation. where is the mean free path, Δis the average time between collisions, and is the average molecular speed. Mean Free Path--- 1D Brownian Motion Consider a 1D random walk: during each time step size Δ, a particle can move by + or − so that a collision happens. Mean Free Path--- 1D Brownian Motion The displacement fr

The numerical solution of the time-fractional sub-diffusion equation on an unbounded domain in two-dimensional space is considered, where a circular artificial boundary is introduced to divide the unbounded domain into a bounded computational domain and an unbounded exterior domain. The local artificial boundary conditions for the fractional sub-diffusion equation are designed on the circular. (2019) Lattice Boltzmann model for time sub-diffusion equation in Caputo sense. Applied Mathematics and Computation 358, 80-90. (2019) Investigations on several high-order ADI methods for time-space fractional diffusion equation. Numerical Algorithms 82:1, 69-106. (2019) Anisotropic linear triangle finite element approximation for multi-term time-fractional mixed diffusion and diffusion-wave.

QSARs for skin permeation of chemicals

Abstract The time fractional diffusion equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions in an n-dimensional whole-space and half-space is considered. Its solution has been obtained in terms of Green functions by Schneider and Wyss. For the problem in whole-space, an explicit representation of the Green functions can also be obtained The advection-diffusion equation (ADE) , which is commonly referred to as the transport equation, time-dependent diffusion coefficient. Zoppou and Knight (1997a, 1997b) present analytical solutions of advection and advection-diffusion equations with spatially variable coefficients. An asymptotic solution for two-dimensional flow in an estuary, where the velocity is time-varying and the. The equation in the image is wrong. Plug x = 0 in it, and you'll see it's not zero. The sign in front of the second erfc function should have been -. The time t should be passed to Canalytical as a parameter, so the function can be used for multiple values of t. Using 1000 terms of the sum is excessive since erfc decays extremely fast at infinity This paper introduces a set of new fully explicit numerical algorithms to solve the spatially discretized heat or diffusion equation. After discretizing the space and the time variables according to conventional finite difference methods, these new methods do not approximate the time derivatives by finite differences, but use a combined two-stage constant-neighbour approximation to decouple.

To date, different equations including the exponential type (Li et al 2016a, 2016b), the power type (Liu et al 2015, Forman et al 2017) and the fractional type (Yue et al 2017) have been used to describe the relationship between diffusivity and diffusion time. In these equations, two parameters are changed to fit the experimental data. One parameter represents the initial diffusivity, and the. Drift-Diffusion Equation Derivation - 2nd.Term v( k fFext )d3k fv( k Fext)d3k 1 ∫ ∇ ⋅ −1 ∫ ∇ ⋅ rv v h rv v h d k v(F f )d k v(v f )d k v f f d k t f v ext k x ∫ 3 +1 ∫ ⋅∇ 3 +∫ ⋅∇ 3 =−∫ − 0 3 ∂ ∂ τ rv v rrv r h r f is finite and so the surface integral (integral of divergence of fvFext) at infinity vanishes identically Identity F g ()gF g

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Diffusion Equation - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Stochastic equations diffusion equations reverse-time equations Kolmogorov equations Fokker-Planck equations 1. Introduction Stochastic differential equations have a built-in direction of time flow since future increments in the driving process are assumed independent of present and past values of the process defined by the solution of the equation. The differential equations are thought of as. heat equation (4) Equation 4 is known as the heat equation. We next consider dimensionless variables and derive a dimensionless version of the heat equation. Example 1: Dimensionless variables A solid slab of width 2bis initially at temperature T0. At time t0, the surfaces at x b are suddenly raised to temperature T1 and maintained at. In this work, the advection diffusion equation is solved in two dimensional space (x, z) which depends on time using Laplace transform technique to evaluate crosswind integrated of pollutant concentration per emission rate. Two schemes of the edd

J n and J p = the diffusion current densities. q = electron charge. D n and D p = diffusion coefficients for electrons and holes. n and p = electron and hole concentrations Equation of diffusion for carriers in the bulk of semiconductor. With time (t1, t2, t3), an initial pulse of electrons will diffuse. Spreading of a pulse of electrons by. The diffusion equation (which is technically different but often used interchangeably with the heat equation) is a partial differential equation that describes how a substance spreads out over space and time. It can be used to model lots of different things including how heat moves through a medium or how uhh. how stuff diffuses. In my specific case, I'm using it to model how a cell releases.

The diffusion-convection-reaction (DCR) equation arises in a number of physical phenomena, such as, the dispersion of chemicals in reactors, 1 1. J. Xie, Q. Huang, and X. Yang, Numerical solution of the one-dimensional fractional convection diffusion equations based on Chebyshev operational matrix, SpringerPlus 5, 1149 (2016) (2021) A time-fractional diffusion equation with space-time dependent hidden-memory variable order: analysis and approximation. BIT Numerical Mathematics 86 . (2021) A space-time spectral Petrov-Galerkin method for nonlinear time fractional Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equations sion equation leads, after the rescaling of time by the effec-tive population size, N e, to an equation that depends on the composite parameters N es and N eu, rather than separately depending on N e, s, and u. Thus one conclusion that may be immediately drawn, without actually solving the diffusion equation, is that the equilibrium distribution of the allele frequency (which does not involve. By time-fractional diffusion processes, we mean certain diffusion-like phenomena governed by master equations containing fractional derivatives in time whose fundamental solution can be interpreted as a probability density function in space evolving in time. It is well known that, for the most elementary diffusion process, the Brownian motion, the master equation, is the standard linear.

where μ is the characteristic time of the dynamics and L is a Laplacian of the network. The same set of equations can represent, possibly up to a change of variables, a basic model for the. Existence for Time-Fractional Semilinear Diffusion Equation on the Sphere. N. D. Phuong,1 Ho Duy Binh,2 Ho Thi Kim Van,2 and Le Dinh Long 2. 1Faculty of Fundamental Science, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam. 2Division of Applied Mathematics, Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam The strong form of unsteady advection-diffusion-reaction equations can be stated as follows: find such that. Note that all the problem coeffients (, , , , , , , ) might depend on time . The weak formulation of reads: for all , find such that with diffusion equation (2.1.8). B. Infinite-Medium Solutions to the Diffusion Equation In an infinite medium we require only that the fluence rate 0 become small at large distances from the source. The Green's function solution to diffusion equation (2.1.8) for a source pulse of unit energy emitted from the origin at time t = t' is2 Diffusion Advection Reaction Equation. Learn more about pde, finite difference method, numerical analysis, crank nicolson metho

Combining such approximations with the sum-of-exponential approximations of the kernel, we develop fast difference schemes for one- and two-dimensional fractional diffusion equations, the solutions of which have a weak singularity at the starting time. The proof of the stability and convergence is based on the maximum principle. Numerical examples confirm theoretical estimates Therefore, to solve the whole advection-diffusion equation, time splitting techniques are often applied to Equation (1). Advection and diffusion are then solved using different numerical tech-niques that are specifically suited to achieve high accuracy for each type of equation [17-19]. In the literature, several authors [3,20] combined the DG method for advection with the mixed finite. This paper is devoted to identifying a time-dependent source term in a multi-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation from boundary Cauchy data. The existence and uniqueness of a strong solution for the corresponding direct problem with homogeneous Neumann boundary condition are firstly proved. We provide the uniqueness and a stability estimate for the inverse time-dependent source. Steady-state analysis. Steady-state mass diffusion analysis provides the steady-state solution directly: the rate of change of concentration with respect to time is omitted from the governing diffusion equation in steady-state analysis. In nonlinear cases iteration may be necessary to achieve a converged solution

Note. For the linear advection-diffusion-reaction equation implicit methods are simply to implement even though the computation cost is increases. One must simply write the equation in the linear form \(A\cdot x = d\) and solve for \(x\) which is the solution variable at the future time step. However if the equations are non-linear then implicit methods pose problem because the equation cannot. heat diffusion equation pertains to the conductive trans- port and storage of heat in a solid body. The body itself, of finite shape and size, communicates with the external world by exchanging heat across its boundary. Within the solid body, heat manifests itself in the form of temper- ature, which can be measured accurately. Under these conditions, Fourier's differential equation mathemati.

2.1: The Diffusion Equation - Geosciences LibreText

Semilinear Caputo time-fractional pseudo-parabolic equations. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2021, 20 (2) : 583-621. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2020282 [3] Qing Tang. On an optimal control problem of time-fractional advection-diffusion equation This equation is obtained from the diffusion equation by replacing the first order time-deri\-va\-ti\-ve by the Caputo fractional derivative of order $\beta,\ 0 <\beta \leq 2$ and the Laplace operator by the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^{\frac\alpha 2}$ with $0<\alpha \leq 2$. First, a representation of the fundamental solution in form of a Mellin-Barnes integral is deduced by employing the. In two previous blog posts (Diffusion without equations Parts I and II), we described the basics of diffusion MRI qualitatively. We have now developed a larger course for MR scientists interested in an introduction to diffusion MRI. The course consists of six lectures (plus one bonus lecture) taken from various educational sessions held at ISMRM meetings around the world Linear Fractional Diffusion Wave Equation For Scientists And Engineers Yuriy Povstenko helping me and my friends with college papers! You have the best essay writers really. And it's amazing how you deal with urgent orders! When I picked a 3 hour deadline, I didn't believe you'd make it on time. But you did! And saved my life : unit time is Jx(x)A, while the number of moles leaving this volume is Jx(x+∆x)A. The change diffusion equation, c depends on t and on the spatial variables. To fully specify a reaction-diffusion problem, we need the differential equations, some initial conditions, and boundary conditions. The initial conditions will be initial values of the concen- trations over the domain of the problem.

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fractional diffusion equation which employs space and time fractional derivatives by taking a time-dependent diffusion coefficient, an absorbent or sources term and an external force into account. More precisely, we focus our attention on the following equation (,) ( ) (, )0 [ ( ) ( , )] ( ) ( , )0 xt dtDt t xtt tx Fx xt dtat t xtt TIME - FRACTIONAL DIFFUSION EQUATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN PHYSICS Tesi di laurea in Fisica Relatore: Chiar.mo Prof. Francesco Mainardi Correlatore: Dott.ssa Silvia Vitali Presentata da: Armando Consiglio Sessione estiva Anno Accademico 2016/2017 . Abstract In physics, process involving the phenomena of di usion and wave prop-agation have great relevance; these physical process are governed. time-fractional diffusion equations. Lin and Xu [25, 26] proposed the numerical solution by finite/difference approximations for a time-fractional diffusion equa-tion. Liu et al. [27] developed an explicit difference method and an implicit differ-ence method for solving a space-time fractional advection dispersion equation on a finite domain. In [24, 3, 4], high order numerical difference.

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time t =0at positionx=0andexecute arandomwalk accordingtothe followingrules: 1) Each particle steps to the right or to the left once every r seconds, moving at velocity ±vx a distance Diffusion: MicroscopicTheory 7 38 -28 -8 0 8 28 38 Fig. 1.2. Particlesexecutingaone-dimensionalrandom teas Tinsteps ofIength S 6=±^-Forsimplicity. Substituting the above approximations into the 1D diffusion equation we get Since we know the time scale in this situation, we solve this equation for what we do not know: the depth at which the temperature variation has substantially decayed. Note that ΔT has cancelled out. Thus the shape of the depth variation of the solution does not depend on the amplitude of the temperature variation at. Parameter β(s,x) is the diffusion coefficient at time s and position x. Let X = {X t, t ≥ 0} be a diffusion process. The forward evolution of its transition density p(s,x;t,y) is given by the Kolmogorov forward equation (or Fokker-Planck equation): for a fixed initial state (s,x). The backward evolution is given by the Kolmogorov backward equation: for a fixed final state (t,y). Example. On the large-time asymptotics of the diffusion equation on infinite domains R.C. KLOOSTERZIEL Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands* Received 10 October 1989; accepted 27 November 1989 Abstract. It is shown that expansions in similarity solutions provide a quick and economical method for assessing the large-time. Advection- Diffusion Equation A. A. Marrouf1,*, Maha S. El-Otaify1, Adel S. Mohamed2, depending on time using Laplace transform to find cross wind integrated normalized concentration [1]. An analytical solution of two dimensional ADE for a semi-infinite medium (half plane) with one-dimensional flow using a double integral expression is studied by [2]. In this study we derived the solution. Using the relationships defined by this equation, the diffusion coefficient of the electroactive species can be determined. Linear plots of ip vs. ν1/2 provide evidence for a chemically.